Contoh-contoh teks report II
An earthworm digs a hole by pushing into the loose soil with its pointed head end which then thickens, forcing the soil apart. Slowly but surely, the worm draws the rest of its body up to disappear into the hole. The earthworm can do this because its body has many narrow rings joined together by a softer material that enables it to change shape. Whenever the soil is too hard to be pushed aside, the earthworm eats its way through.
By burrowing into the soil, the earthworm creates channels and pockets into which air can enter. This allows the soil to become oxygenated so that plant roots can breathe. In this way, earthworms act as gardeners and cultivators of the soil.
Leeches are slimy worms with two suckers, a big one at the rear end and a smaller one et the mouth. They also have powerful muscles which enable them to expand and contract their bodies.
Most leeches live off the blood of other creatures. A leech attaches itself to its victim by piercing its skin and secretes a substance which prevents the blood from clotting. Then it sucks up the blood. As it sucks, it expands so many times its normal size. Once a leech attaches itself to its victim, it is very difficult to remove. However, if you put salt on it, it soon falls off and dies.
Many years ago, people believed that some diseases were caused because a patient had too much blood in his/her body. Doctors would then attach leeches on to the patient. Some leeches, in fact, were specially bred for this purpose.
Sharks are a type of fish that lives in yhr sea. Sharks have lived on esrth for almost 400 million years. Today, there are about 375 kinds of sharks. The smallest is the dwarf dogfish whih is less than 8 inches (20 centimeters) long. The huge whale shark can be more than 50 feet (15 meters) long.
Sharks, like all fish, are vertebrates (animals with a backbone). A shark’s skeleton, however, is not made of bone. It is made of a bendable material called cartilage. Sharks, like other fish, are cold-blodded. They do not make their own body heat.
Sharks live in seas all over the world. Most aharks live in warm water. However, sharks have been spotted near the North and South Pole. Sharks live in salt water, but some can live for a while in fresh water. Bull sharks, for example, can swim up the Mississippi river. Some kinds of sharks live in shallow water along coastlines. Other sharks live far out in the open ocean. A few species live deep down in the sea.
Most sharks have powerful jaws and raws of sharp, triangular teeth. They use their teeth and jaws to crush their prey or tear out pieces of flesh. Your teeth are anchored in your jaw. A shark’s teeth are set into its gums. Sharks often lose teeth while eating. However, there are always rows of new teeth growing behind the first set. As a shark loses teeth, new ones move forward to replace them.
Fish, along with shellfish, is the favourite food of most meateating sharks. Great white sharks will sometimes eat larger sea creatures such as seals, dolphins, whales, and other marine mammals.
Sharks play an important role in keeping ecosystems in balance. Sharks often eat weak or diseased animals. Biologists fear that without sharks, the nnumber of other animals in the sea would quickly grow out of control and eat all the food. It might take many years to restore the delicate baance that sharks help maintain.
A train is made up of railroad cars hooked and pulled by a locomotive. Locomotives are sometimes called engine. All trains run on tracks. Freight trains haul goods. Passenger trrains carry people.
Locomotives push or pill railroad cars. They have powerful motors. The motors turn locomotive wheels that run on railroad tracks. Some locomotives get their power from electricity. The electricity comes from wire above the track or from a special third rail next to the track. Other locomotives get their power from diesel fuel, which is similar to the gasoline that most cars use. The kind of locomotive engines most used today are diesel-electrics. Engines that burn diesel fuel drive generators that make electricity. Powerful electric motors turn the wheels of a diesel-electric locomotive.
A freight car is part of a train which carries goods. A freught train can have as many as 200 cars hooked together. There are special railroad cars for different kinds of freight.
The boxcar has four sides, a floor, and a root. It looks like a box on wheels. Boxcars carry freight that has to be kept clean and dry such as radios, television sets, and boxes of cereal.
Refrigerator cars work like your home refrigerator. They are boxcars that are cold inside. Refrigerator cars carry meat, fruit, frozen dinner, and other food that must be kept cold.
The hopper car is open on the top. Hopper cars carry coal, sand, gravel, and ore (rocks that contain metals). Hopper cars are easy to unload because they have doors on the bottom. The doors open and the coal, sand, or gravel pours out.
A flatcar has no top or sides. It has a floor on wheels. Flat cars carry lumber, steel beams, huge pieces of machinery, and other big items. Lifting machines called cranes load cargo onto flat cars. Special flatcars carry cars, boats, and trucks.
A tank car carries liquids or gases in a big, round tank that is lying on its side. Tank cars can carry milk, gasoline, or oil. Some tank cars carry dangerous chemicals.
Passenger cars have seats in rows along each side. Some passener cars are made for long trips. They have seats that can be made into beds at night. Trains that carry passengers over long distances have special baggage cars ti carry suitcases. They have dining cars where people can sit down and eat.
Trains are very important to transportation. Traens take freight and people to places all over the world.
Milk is produced by female animals and women for feeding their babies.
Women produce milk for their babies, cows produce mil for their calves, mares for their foals, and so on. In fact, the young of mammals are fed solely on milk from birth – human babies up to three or four months old. Young mammals continue to feed on milk, even when they are introduced to solid food.
Milk provides the primari source of nutrition for newborn babies before they are able to digest soid food. It contains protein, ft, lactose and calcium as well as vitamins.